Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth's "sphere atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and, even, the magnetosphere as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth's spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology[ and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.
- Earth electromagnetic field